Long-term Complications

  • There are long-term complications arising due to microangiopathy and increased vascular permeability secondary to hyperglycaemia
    • It is unclear why hyperglycaemia causes these
  • There are 5 key pathologies to know about:
    • Macrovascular
      • Ischaemic heart disease
      • Stroke
      • Peripheral arterial disease
    • Microvascular – these are specific to diabetes and affect small vessels in:
      • Retinopathy
      • Nephropathy
      • Neuropathy
    • Mixed – Diabetic foot